Footnotes & Citations

Referencing is a way to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words or ideas. By citing the work of a particular individual you acknowledge and respect the intellectual property rights of that person. Referencing is also a way to provide evidence to support the assertions and claims in your content.

The secret of getting ahead is getting started.

Mark Twain

Broadly speaking the block quote is used to identify content from another source and it is really easy to use.

  • Highlight quoted content
  • Copy to the clipboard
  • Paste into your content
  • Highlight again
  • Press the “” quote option from the menu bar
  • All done!

You might be done but are you finished? In many cases the quoted text is really a citation which requires a little more work.



A reference which is more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse should be placed as a free-standing block without quotation marks. Many authors take liberties by using the “blockquote” to draw attention to content which may or may not be a citation. I am guilty of this misuse as the above example certainly does not meet the standard for number of lines. 


Citation Anatomy 


<blockquote cite="source link">
  <p>The quotation</p>
  <cite><a href="source link">Source Name</a></cite>


Design Notes

The blockquote is the holder of a citation. Contained within are the quotation and the link to the source.



  1. Highlight the template code
  2. Copy contents to clipboard
  3. Open Sandbox editor
  4. Paste clipboard into sandbox
  5. Replace the “source link” with the source html link
  6. Replace the “The quotation” with text to be cited
  7. If the cite is to be unnamed
    1. delete the next line
  8. If the cite is to named
    1. replace “source link” with source html link
    2. replace the “Source Name” with the name
  9. Highlight and copy all of the sandbox content to the clipboard
  10. GoTo the content where the citation will be placed
  11. Place cursor at the correct position
  12. Click the editor “Insert ” menu dropdown
  13. Select “ Media”
  14. Select the “Embed” tab
  15. Paste clipboard content into the text box
  16. Click the “OK” button



A footnotes is a different form of citation where the text is identified with a numeric mark and the sources are listed at the bottom of the page. Whenever possible the footnote mark should be placed at the end of the sentence immediately following the period or whatever punctuation completes the sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote mark before beginning the next sentence.


What is an “endnote”? Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page while “endnotes” are placed at the end of the document. As blog posts are traditionally a single page composition the use of an endnote would be rare.


A footnote does not need to contain the entire citation as the name of the publication and the date listed is sufficient.



<div class="note">
  <hr />
  <ol class="dbl-spaced">


Design Notes

Contained within the footnote template is a specialized horizontal rule and a double spaced ordered list of sources. If required, the beginning number of the ordered list can be adjusted by adding the start=”X” to the “ol” element. The footnote marks are traditionally styled with a superscripted “<sup>1</sup>” number.



  1. Add footnote mark at the end of cite text
    1. <sup>1</sup>
  2. Highlight the template code
  3. Copy contents to clipboard
  4. Open Sandbox editor
  5. Paste clipboard into sandbox
  6. Replace the “Citation” with the correct text
  7. Repeat step 1 for additional marks
  8. Add additional “<li>Citation</li>” lines as needed
  9. GoTo the content where the citation will be placed
  10. Place cursor at the bottom of the page
  11. Click the editor “Insert ” menu dropdown
  12. Select “ Media”
  13. Select the “Embed” tab
  14. Paste clipboard content into the text box
  15. Click the “OK” button


Use Case

Text to be Cited

It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn’s and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms.1



  1. See the website for more information about the symptoms that Crohn’s and Colitis patients may experience.


More information on the use of citations and footnotes can be found at the Purdue University “Owl” project, “Modern Language Association“, and “Plagiarism Org“.



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